Showing posts with label Stages. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Stages. Show all posts

Friday, October 12, 2012

Mesothelioma - The Stages of Pleural Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a type of cancer in which a malignant tumor occurs in the mesothelial tissues of some organs of the body such as the lungs which is called pleural mesothelioma. On the other hand, the mesothelioma cancer in abdomen medically termed as peritoneal mesothelioma and in the heart which is known as pericardial mesothelioma.

This type of cancer is related to exposure to asbestos dust or powder. According to some reports individuals who have been exposed to asbestos developed pleural mesothelioma after 20 to 30 years. The treatment given to this case depends on the malignancy stage of the cancer cells.

Stages of Pleural Mesothelioma

Cancer staging refers to the extent of the cancer cells. The higher the stage, the poor the prognosis is. Treatment and management of pleural mesothelioma depends on how huge and extended the cancer has become.

Stage 1. This is the earliest stage of pleural mesothelioma. This is where the cancer cells begin to develop and reproduce in just a single layer of the pleura (lining of the lungs). However in very rare cases, the lungs itself may already be involved during this phase. The lymph nodes are not yet affected therefore, surgery can be performed to remove the tumor. The prognosis is also very good at this stage.

Stage 2. In this stage, 2 layers of the lining are involved. In normal cases, the pleura produces fluid that serves as lubricant in order to facilitate the expansion and contraction of the lungs as we breathe air in and out of our system. However, stage 2 pleural mesothelioma causes the fluid to build up affecting the lungs and the chest wall. This later on result to pleural effusion making the affected person experience difficulty in breathing.

Surgery may still be performed by this time even though some lymph nodes are already affected. The prognosis is good but there is a chance of recurrence after some time.

Stage 3. During this stage, the cancer cells are no longer isolated in one area of the body and already metastasized to the chest wall or the esophagus. The patient may experience severe pain in the chest area and if it wont be managed properly, this may lead to stage 4 cancer. Surgery is not recommended during this stage because the chest wall and the heart are already in danger.

Stage 4. This stage is the final stage and is very fatal. The prognosis or the chance of recovery is already poor. Cancer cells have already affected the bloodstream and other major organs of the body such as the liver, brain as well as the bones. Radiation or chemotherapy may still be performed in this stage however palliative management is often the option both by the medical team and the patient.

Those are the 4 stages of Pleural Mesothelioma. So if you think you have been long exposed to asbestos, visit your doctor right away.

Harry Hassami is the author and producers of The Mesothelioma Journal. The complete website information about the mesothelioma.

Wednesday, October 10, 2012

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Stage 1) - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Stages and Treatment


Stage 1 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be present in a sufferer without showing any signs or symptoms. It is usually diagnosed when a doctor orders a patient to take a chest X-ray which is often associated with another illness. Symptoms may include: a persistent cough (smoker's cough), shortness of breath, wheezing, and recurrent bronchitis or pneumonia. At this early stage, other symptoms are not usually present in a sufferer.


Stage 1 NSCLC is localized (contained within the lungs) and has not spread to the lymph nodes or other organs in the body.


- 1 The cancer is localized within the lungs but has not yet spread to the lymph nodes.

- 1A (the tumor is 3 cm or less in diameter).

- 1B (the tumor is between 3-5 cm in diameter).

These stages may also be described with a system called TNM (T = tumor size, N = nodes, and M = metastasis [spread of cancer]). Example:

- 1A (T1N0M0) Meaning that the tumor is less than 3 cm (T1), with no nodes (N0), and no metastasis (M0).

- 1B (T2N0M0) Meaning that the tumor is greater than 3 cm (T2), with no nodes (N0), and no metastasis (M0).


Surgery is usually considered as the primary option for Stage 1 lung cancer treatment where removal of the tumor may be done via various different techniques. These techniques may include: segmentectomy (removal of a small segment of the lung), lobectomy (removal of the lobe of the lung), or pneumonectomy (removal of the entire lung).

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) may be used when either the location of the tumor is difficult to reach using traditional surgery, or when the general health of the patient is not at its best and considered that the patient would not be able to tolerate a full surgical procedure. VATS is also less intrusive on the patient than traditional surgery.

If the cancer is considered to be inoperable, radiation therapy may be used to treat it.

Stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRS) is one treatment that may be considered. This is where the patient is first immobilized in a frame to stop any movement, then computer imaging techniques are used to identify precisely where the cancerous cells are. These cells are then in turn destroyed by being given high dosages of radiation.

Conventional radiation therapy's are not usually recommended with Stage 1A lung cancer, although with Stage 1B, adjuvant chemotherapy (chemotherapy used after surgery to kill off any remaining cancerous cells) may be offered.

Philip Albert Edmonds-Hunt is from the County of Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. He has travelled most of Europe, and he has lived in Spain on more than one occasion. Philip has also travelled much of the USA and now lives and works as a Freelance Writer and English Teacher in Mexico. He is the owner of The Oxford Quill, a small but reliable business offering a range of services such as Professional Article Writing, Proofreading, and Website Design. If you would like to read more about lung cancer, check out:

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